The Powers That Be: Theology for a New Millennium

The Powers That Be: Theology for a New Millennium by Walter Wink

The Powers That Be reclaims the divine realm as central to human existence by offering new ways of understanding our world in theological terms. Walter Wink reformulates ancient concepts, such as God and the devil, heaven and hell, angels and demons, principalities and powers, in light of our modern experience. He helps us see heaven and hell, sin and salvation, and the powers that shape our lives as tangible parts of our day-to-day experience, rather than as mysterious phantoms. Based on his reading of the Bible and analysis of the world around him, Wink creates a whole new language for talking about and to God. Equipped with this fresh world view, we can embark on a new relationship with God and our world into the next millennium.

Rethinking Religion

Rethinking Religion Finding a Place for Religion in a Modern, Tolerant, Progressive, Peaceful and Science-affirming World by Barbara O’Brien.

This book is a proposal to rethink religion so that our definitions are both more accurate and more inclusive of the variety of religious experience around the world. It also is an argument that there is a way to be religious and modern, open minded, progressive, appreciative of science, tolerant, and a peaceful global citizen of the 21st century.

From Wild Man To Wise Man

From wild man to wise man: reflections on male spirituality by Richard Rohr.

The book, From Wild Man to Wise Man: Reflections on Male Spirituality, was revised in 2005. For this new work, Richard shortened almost every chapter, changed some chapters significantly and dropped seven chapters from the previous edition. He added three chapters that discuss John the Baptist, Paul and grief. The former afterword has become a very different chapter two, “Is There Such a Thing as Masculine Spirituality?

The Bible Tells Me So, Chapter 3: God Likes Stories

What Happened?

  • Stories of the past differ because storytellers are human beings. Recalling the past is actually never simply a process or remembering but of creating a narrative.
  • The biblical storytellers recall the past, often the very distant past, not “objectively” but purposefully.
  • Four Gospels and two different stories about Israel’s past.
  • What drove the Bible’s storytellers to recall the past the way they did was the quest to experience God in the present, a sometimes volatile and catastrophic present.

The Stories of Jesus

  • Even though Matthew, Mark, and Luke are clearly consciously connected to one another somehow, each Gospel writer clearly has no problem whatsoever going off and telling the story of Jesus in his own unique way.
  • Luke’s Gospel even begins by mentioning that “many” have written their own accounts of Jesus.
  • John’s version of Jesus “cleansing the temple” is in the beginning of Jesus’s public ministry, Mark, Matthew, and Luke have it at the end.
  • More than the other three Gospel writers, John is big on Jesus’s divine authority over the religious leaders.

Little Baby Jesuses

  • Mark and John don’t even have birth stories.
  • Matthew’s portrait of Jesus serves his purpose: he drops into his Gospel images of Jesus that remind you of Moses and the exodus story. In this way the writer is saying Jesus needs to be understood not at a distance from Israel’s story, but as God’s way of taking Israel’s story to the next, climatic stage with Jesus at the center rather than Moses.
  • Luke’s Jesus is very “kingly” right from the start.

Who Saw the Big Moment?

  • The end of Jesus’s story, namely what happens Easter morning, is reported very differently by the Gospel writers.
  • Matthew’s is the only one that has Roman soldiers guarding the tomb. Mary Magdalene and the “other Mary” are the ones who find the tomb empty.
  • Luke’s has a veritable women’s club at the tomb: Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of Jesus, and the “other women.” They see “two men”, run off to tell the disciples, and Peter comes back to see for himself.
  • Mark has Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Solome going to the tomb. They are frightened, run away and tell no one. (Note that there are two endings to Mark, with the second, longer one added a couple of centuries later to reconcile it with Matthew and Luke.)
  • John’s story has Mary Magdalene going to the tomb alone, she runs back to get Peter and “the other disciple” and they race to the tomb, and “the other disciple” gets there first.
  • If we are fixed on the Bible as a book that has to get history “right,” the Gospels become a crippling problem.

The Stories of Israel

  • Israel’s period of the monarchy, six hundred years from Israel’s first king, Saul (around 1100 BCE) to the end of the monarchy when the Babylonians sacked the capital city of Jerusalem in 586 BCE.
  • The Old Testament has two stories of this period of the monarchy The first is found in 1 and 2 Samuel and 1 and 2 Kings and the second is in 1 and 2 Chronicles.
  • The Christian bible places Chronicles immediately after 2 Kings, but in the Jewish bible it is at the end of the Old Testament.
  • Chronicles was intentionally crafted to give a very different take on Israel’s past. The two stories differ because they were written at different times to answer different questions.
  • Samuel/Kings written during the exile in Bablyon. “How did we end up in Bablyon? What did we do to deserve it?”
  • Chronicles was written about 200 years later, after the Israelites were back from exile for generations. “After all this time, are we still the people of God? Is God ever going to show up and fix this mess? What is our future?”
  • Around 930 BCE the northern kingdom of Israel (capital Samaria) and the southern kingdom of Judah (capital Jersusalem) split
  • Each kingdom had its own line of kings. 1 and 2 Kings deals with all of them, Chronicles leaves the northern kings out because by then the northern kingdom had been destroyed by the Assyrians.
  • In 2 Samuel, God makes David a promise that his house and dynasty will last for a very long time.
  • In 1 Chronicles the house and dynasty is God’s not David’s.
  • Why does it matter? At the time of 2 Samuel its possible for David’s line to continue, but by the time of 2 Chronicles that line of David had been broken for many generations. The Judahites might have wondered whether it was a sign that God had given up on them. But the writer of Chronicles says, “No, You see, it’s not really David’s dynasty, anyway. It’s God’s.” (location 1327)

The Past Serves the Present

  • In 2 Samuel Solomon alone builds the temple, in 1 Chronicles David has a major role in building the temple.
  • These two portraits of David and Solomon aren’t “basically the same” with some minor details shifted around. They tell two irreconcilably different stories of Israel’s founding kings. Why? Each writer was speaking to his time.
  • For the writer of 2 Samuel, bad leadership is why the kingdom split and carried off to captivity. God is just and they deserved it.
  • David and Solomon of 1 and 2 Chronicles are a blueprint for the future, where a king would arise to lead them again to political independence.

A Warm-Up for the Main Event

  • The plight of Israel’s kings is the heart and center of Israel’s story.
  • 34 of the 39 books of the Old Testament deal with Israel’s storyline. 27 of the 34 deal with the period of the monarchy, exile and the return
  • The other 7, the first seven (Torah: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy; and Joshua and Judges) are stories of Israel’s deep past or “origins stories.” They explain how things came to be, why things are the way they are, and most important, how Israel got to be Israel — a kingdom with a land of its own.
  • The period of the monarchy is not only the meat of the Old Testament narrative of Israel. It’s also the period when Israel’s grand narrative was written.
  • Israel’s stories of kings and exile are the most historically verifiable of all the Old Testament books.They match up well with historical records from other nations like Assyria, Babylon, and Persia.
  • Little archaeological evidence for the origin stories. “If Israel’s storytellers took the recent past, like stories of David and Solomon, and shaped them creatively to speak to the present, we can bet good money they shaped the distant past with the same creative and present mind-set.” (location 1478)
  • When you read the origins stories you see embedded in them previews of coming attractions.

A Sneak Peek at the Political Map

  • Israel’s entire national political map is already laid out in the origins stories.
  • In the late nineteenth century archaeologists found a Babylonian story known as Enuma Elish that includes a section on the creation of the cosmos. It looks similar to the creation story in Genesis.
  • Babylonian culture is much older than Israelite culture, so it seems the Israelites modeled their creation story along the lines of the Babylonian story to do it one better. Israel’s God is superior to all the gods of Babylon because he is the true creator
  • The overlap between Israel’s ancestors and the political realities of the monarchy is not a coincidence. Genesis previews what’s ahead, the meat of the Old Testament — Israel’s life in the land.

Playing Favorites with Little Brother

  • All through Israel’s origins stories, God has this unexpected habit of favoring younger brothers over their elder brothers.
  • Able over Cain; Isaac over Ishmael; Jacob over Esau; Joseph over his older brothers; Moses over Aaron
  • After the nation of Israel splits into northern and southern kingdoms, the one to survive, the one to return from exile and reclaim the land, is the southern kingdom, the “younger” of the two.
  • Note that the kingdom that came out on top is the one that compiled and composed Israel’s story in the wake of the crisis of exile
  • Israel’s origins stories, with God’s preferential treatment of the younger sibling, were written to explain why the southern kingdom, the “younger brother,” survived Babylonian exile whereas the elder (and larger and more powerful) northern “brother” was wiped off the pages of history by the Assyrians 150 years earlier. (location 1576)
  • Israel’s stories of the deep past were not written to “talk about what happened back then.” They were written to explain what is. The past is shaped to speak to the present.

Adam, Who Art Thou?

  • The story of Adam previews Israel’s entire story from beginning to end.
  • Obey and you stay; disobey and be exiled. Israel’s story follows the same pattern.
  • The story of Adam, from life with God to death in exile, is an abbreviated version of Israel’s story. Rabbis have noticed this since at least the medieval period.

The Exodus Story

  • Modern historians are puzzled that no ancient source, including Egyptian ones, even hint at an event of the scope of the exodus.
  • Stories of Israel’s monarchy have no problem mentioning names of hostile kings, but the Pharaoh who enslaved the Israelites and who ruled for four hundred years is not named.
  • As history, the exodus story has some challenges. But as story, it carries serious punch that we will miss if focus on the historical angle. Through this story, Israel’s storytellers are tying their people not simply back to Adam but to the first moments of creation itself.

When Gods Fight

  • Back to the Enuma Elish. In this story we read of the god Marduk winning a cosmic battle at the dan of time by slaying Tiamat, who is Marduk’s great-great-grandmother and the symbol of watery chaos. But cutting Tiamat in half, Marduk made the chaos a habitable place.
  • Marduk is the god who handpicked Hammurabi, who was king of a new Babylonian dynasty. Since Marduk handpicked Hammurabi, to contend against Hammurabi was to contend against Marduk himself.
  • Exodus is a story of Israel’s beginnings, rooted too, in a battle between the gods: Yahweh versus the Egyptian gods.
  • The story of Moses throwing his staff before Pharaoh and it turns into a serpent. Pharaoh’s advisers do the same but then Moses’s serpent eats the others.
  • The ten plagues:
    • The Nile turned into blood; the Nile was worshiped as a god
    • Second plague, frogs multiple all over Egypt. The Egyptian goddess of fertility, Heqet, was supposed to have control over that and was depicted by the head of a frog.
    • In the ninth plague, Yahweh darkens the sun. the high god of Egyptians and the patron god of Pharaoh is the sun god Ra.
  • The plagues aren’t random tricks. They are a “one-sided cage match” of Israel’s God, Yahweh, versus the Gods of Egypt.
  • The knock-out blow is the parting of the Red Sea. Israelites march to freedom and a nation is born, which echos the story of creation in Genesis chapter one.

What’s with All the Water?

  • Biblical scholars relying on geological findings believe that a great deluge in Mesopotamia around 2900 BCE was the trigger for the many flood stories that circulated the ancient world.
  • The stories reflect the belief that the flood was divine punishment. In the Atrahasis epic the flood was divine punishment for humans making too much noise and so keeping the gods from their rest.
  • The biblical story takes a different approach by not placing the blame on gods but on human wickedness and evil.
  • The Hebrew word for ark is tevah (TAY-vah), and it occurs in only one other place in the entire Old Testament: the story of Moses
  • In all of these stories God is in full control of water

Stories Work

  • Did what the Bible says happened really happen?
  • The Bible and history is a polarizing issue resulting in two sides: the “now we know the Bible is a pack of lies” side and the “Bible has to be historically accurate to be the Word of God” side.
  • Both start from the premise that any book worthy of being called “scripture” has to, if anything, get history “right.”
  • Both sides have painted themselves into the same corner.
  • Ironically, the passionate defense of the Bible as a “history book” among the more conservative wings of Christianity, despite intentions, isn’t really an act of submission to God; it is making God submit to us.
  • Over the years I’ve grown more and more convinced that “storytelling” is a better way of understanding what the Bible is doing with the past than “history writing.”
  • Maybe God likes stories

The Bible Tells Me So, Chapter 2: God Did What?!

How Not to Treat Other People

  • Have you encountered the “theological problem” of violence in the bible, particularly genocide, before? If so, how have you handled it?
  • “Whatever we do, we certainly can’t hide under a blanket and wish this away.” (location 489)

Those Wicked, Horrible Canaanites

  • The Canaanites are decedents of Noah’s youngest son Ham, who was cursed by Noah because he saw his father (Noah) naked. Genesis 9:20-27
  • Canaanites occupy the land that God promises to Abraham he will give to his decedents a hundred years later. Genesis 12:4-7

Marching Orders

  • What is your reaction to God’s instructions on what to do with the Canaanites?
  • “the extermination of the Canaanites is not an afterthought. According to the Bible, Israels’s God planned it from the days of Noah and the flood, and he carries out the plan with bracing determination and precision, patiently encouraging and even training the troops to get it done.” (location 578)

If Jesus Sends People to Hell, What’s So Bad About Killing Some Canaanites??

  • “God is the sovereign king of the universe, and his unfathomable will is not to be questioned by puny mortals, so shut up about it.” (location 591)
  • “Sure, Jesus talks about loving your enemies, but Jesus also talks about throwing sinners into hell to burn forever.”
  • Our view of hell comes from medieval Christian theology.
  • In the Gospels the word we think is “hell” is Gehenna, which is a Greek translation of the Old Testament Hebrew ge’ hinnom meaning “Valley of Hinnom,” an actual valley located just outside the walls of Jerusalem.
  • Gehenna refers to God’s punishment to come upon his own people for ailing to recognize God’s presence and follow God’s ways. Jesus, preaching to his fellow Jews, jumps all over this symbolism.
  • The only time a Canaanite makes it into the New Testament, and she becomes a model of faithful persistence, her faith in Jesus led to her daughter’s healing.
  • To sum up: leave Jesus out of it. Nothing Jesus said or did is worse than God telling Israelites to kill Canaanites.
  • “But does this mean that God’s hands were tied, that he he had to buy into the system?”
  • The biblical writers believed God is a warrior who likes waging war against the enemy and acquiring land.

God’s Nicer Side

  • It is true that the Old Testament portrays various sides of God in diverse ways.
  • An example is the book of Jonah
  • “My only point is that these stories don’t erase God’s command to exterminate Canaanites.” (location 714)

Worst. Sinners. Ever

  • The Canaanites got exactly what they deserved because they were utterly morally corrupt.
  • There are other examples of sin in the bible equivalent to that which the Canaanites did that did not result in extermination.
  • “However immoral the Canaanites were, the real problem isn’t what they did, but where they did it.” (location 735)
  • To leave any Canaanites alive would (1) contaminate the land and (2) threaten Israel’s devotion to their God.
  • “If we were reading a story like this in some other religious text, we’d call this genocide, ethnic cleansing, and barbarous, pure and simple.” (location 764)
  • Is there a better way to think about Canaanite extermination that doesn’t get God cheaply off the hook?

It’s a Tribal Culture Thing

  • God never told the Israelites to kill the Canaanites. The Israelites believed God told them to kill the Canaanites.
  • If true, why is the story in the Old Testament at all and how would it have been heard at that time?
  • Israel’s culture was shaped by their tribal neighbors.
  • “We are the good guys, and all of you out there are the bad guys.”
  • Similarites to how a story carved on a ninth century BCE stone monument from Moab. (location 809)
  • Failure to “put to the ban” everyone and everything as directed by your god was a great way to make your god extremely angry.
  • “Israel was an ancient tribal people, and they thought and acted like one. But knowing that doesn’t really solve our problem, does it?” (location 824)

Digging for Answers

  • “Biblical Archaeologists are about as certain as you can about these things that the conquest of Canaan as the Bible describes did not happen.”
  • Where did the biblical story of the conquest come from?
  • Possibly from a series of smaller skirmishes that the story tellers exaggerated over time.

God Lets His Children Tell the Story

  • Why would the Israelites write a story about God that isn’t true — and what are we supposed to do today with a Holy Bible that makes up lies?
  • If God is behind scriptures — if the Bible is God’s Holy Word — and if we, too, are to meet God in its pages, why would God allow himself to be cast in the role of a majorly hacked of tribal deity if he wasn’t?
  • “The Bible — from back to front — is the story of God told from the limited point of view of real people living at a certain place and time.” (location 899)
  • If the writers had somehow been able to step outside of their culture and invent a new way of talking, their story would have made no sense to anyone else.
  • “God lets his children tell the story.”
  • “These ancient writers had an adequate understanding of God for them in their time, but not for all time. ” (location 943)
  • For Christians, Jesus, not the Bible, has the final word.

Why This Chapter Is So Important and So Dreadfully Long

  • For most, God ordering, sanctioning, or carrying out mass killings in the Old Testament is the most awkward issue that troubles them about the Bible.
  • Some contemporary atheists hail it as exhibit A for the utter stupidity of any faith in the God of the Bible.
  • When ancient Israelites wrote as they did about the physical world, they were expressing their faith in God in ways that fit their understanding.
  • So that’s why this chapter looks the way it does — to put right in front of our eyes the antiquity of the Bible, and to see how embracing that antiquity is the beginning point for exploring the Bible as it is, to accept the challenge to investigate even some of its darker pathways, and so to begin learning how we, too, can embrace Israel’s story for our journey.

Idolatry of God, Chapter 9: Want to Lose Belief? Join the Church

If you were a participant in Case Study 1: Fundamentalism, what would you take away, or how would you feel?

What do you think is the point of Case Study 2?

Re-written Nicene Creed on page 191

What is the point of Case Study 3?

Page 200: “I hope you will think of this book as a box of matches and these closing words as a plea to go and start some fires of your own. Fires that will burn away the Idols we so tightly hold on to, fires that will melt away the false certainties that we clothe ourselves in, fires that will keep us warm as we go about the difficult task of facing up to our anxieties, accepting the mystery of life, and embracing the world in love.”

Idolatry of God, Chapter 8: Destroying Christianity and Other Christian Acts

In terms of religion every theistic system can be seen to have its atheistic opposite. There are as many atheisms as there are theisms.

Would you find value in Atheism for Lent or Omega Course?

We are confronted with a more disconcerting type of mystery. Not a mystery that lies beyond the world we understand but a mystery that lies within it.

Idolatry of God, Chapter 7: I Need Your Eyes in Order to See Myself

What will a community, the Church, that seeks to enter in to and remain faithful to a way of life free from the relentless pursuit of certainty and satisfaction look like?

When we take a step back and look at our actions, do we not find that we stay mainly with those people who think like us?

When we accept our unknowing and brokenness, we are not weakening our faith, we are boldly expressing it.

How do you think you would react if you participated in the Last Supper and Evangelism Project?

Idolatry of God, Chapter 6: The Fool Says in His Heart, “There Is Knowing God”

The only way to break from our attachment to idolatry and the addiction to certainty is a change at the very core of our being, something that the apostle Paul called becoming a new creation. (2 Corinthians 5:17)

Have you felt faced with the similar two choices as Finn (the new christian) on pages 122/23 when starting to question the beliefs once taken for granted?

  • Either leave the church or repress your questioning and insulate yourself from the outside world.

“It is not when we reject the Idol that we are freed from it but rather when we are directly confronted with the Idol rejecting its status as an Idol.” Rollins goes on to say that “The Cross testifies to a liberating logic where the prison of idolatry is shattered from within.”

Do you agree with Rollin’s analogy of how the church today largely teaches us to act like Oliver Hardy when it comes to the Crucifixion? (In the analogy, Rollins describes one of the Laurel and Hardy comedy motifs in which Hardy exhibits an excess of pride and arrogance, only to made to look ridiculous by a situation created by Laurel. It works because Hardy realizes by never accepts the reality of his humiliation.)

How do you understand the early church’s teaching of Jesus being fully human?

  • I’ve always taken this to mean he was like me, but Rollins says he is fully human because he is unlike me. In other words, it is me who is not fully human, or not as originally intended. (page 134)
  • Jesus lacked the lack. (without Original Sin)

I really like the second to last paragraph of the section “The Missing Link,” page 134

God of Christ is a reality that we experience as not existing. Instead, this God is present as the source that calls everything into existence.

God is not seen but is testified to in a particular way of seeing.

Quote at the end of page 138, “By revealing God as love, the Christian tradition rejects the idea that God is a meaningful being….”

To make the claim that you know God is actually to proclaim a no-God. It is to proclaim an Idol, masked as God.” (page 139)

In Christ we are confronted with a different understanding altogether, one in which God is not directly known (either as a being “out there” or as found in all things), but is the source that renders everything known.

Love is the crazy, mad, and perhaps ridiculous gesture of saying yes to life, of seeing it as worthy of our embrace and even worthy of our total sacrifice.

Ecclesiastes 5:18-20

Ecclesiastes 6:1-6

What do you think of Rollin’s depiction of the significance of as Christ dies on the Cross we read of the tombs breaking open and the dead coming to life?

A life in which the source of all is no longer approach as some being whom we ought to love, but as a mystery we participate in through the very act of love itself. (page 145)

Idolatry of God, Chapter 5: Trash of the World

Ironic how the original meaning of crucifixion, off being outside of the divinely given order has become the symbol for those who are within the divinely given order. Christendom.

Rollins says in page 101 that Paul describes a form of universalism as operating on a fundamentally different level by inviting everyone into a community in which everyone exists beyond or outside the operative power of any given identity, including a Christian one. What does this mean?

Based on what Rollins is saying about Paul, do we think that Paul would like the term “Christian?”

Page 108, “Paul understands participation in the life of Christ as involving the loss of power that our various tribal identities once held for us.”

In context of what Rollins writes about “universalism that is captured in the idea of the Christian as the trash of the world invites us to identify with the one who is placed outside all systems” what has been the affect of Constantine’s church?